Mnemonics in Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Assessment of pain
OLD CAA RTS
Management of Atonic Obstetric Haemorrhage-"HAEMOSTASIS"
General medical management
H-call for help
A-assess (vital signs/blood loss) & resuscitate
E-Establish aeitiology(4T-Tone/Tissue/ Trauma/Thrombin)
E-Ensure availability of blood products
M-Massage the uterus
Specific surgical management
S-shift to operating theatre(bimanual compression anti-shock garment,especially if tranfer is required
T-Tissue & trauma to be exculded & balloon tamponade or uterine packing
A-apply compression sutures
S-sytematic pelvic devascularisation(uterine,ovarian,quadruple,internal iliac)
I-interventional radiology,uterine artery embolisation
|Mukherjee S, Arulkumaran S. Post-partum haemorrhage. Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine. 2009 5;19(5):121-126.
Breaking bad news-"SPIKES" protocol
S-SETTING UP the Interview
P-ASSESSING THE PATIENT'S PERCEPTION
I-OBTAINING THE PATIENT'S INVITATION
K-GIVING KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION TO THE PATIENT
E-ADDRESSING THE PATIENT'S EMOTIONS WITH EMPATHIC RESPONSES
S-STRATEGY AND SUMMARY
article on breaking bad news
another resource on breaking bad news
Book:Mnemonics for Medical Students
Clinical Governance-"SPARE IT"
R-research & risk management
-a complication of preeclampsia
EL-elevated liver enzymes
HELPER-mnemonic for management of shoulder dystocia
E-Evalute for an episiotomy (not necessarilyy done at this point)
L-Legs (McRobert's- flexing the thighs up onto the maternal abdomen)
E-Enter (internal manoeurves- Wood Screw)
R-Remove posterior arm
R-Roll onto hands and knees
This is the recommended emergency drill from Advance Life Support Obstetrics (ALSO).
Interpretation of CTG DRCM BRAVADO
Interpretation of CTG-another mnemonic-"DARTH VADER"
A-Assess quality(rate of paper-in U.K 1cm/min)
R-recorded fetal movements
Mnemonic for decelerations
HE-Head compression causes Early deceleration
LP-Late deceleration due to Placental insufficiency
VC-Variable deceleration due to Cord compression
Causes of transient urinary incontinence-DIAPPERS
Excess urine output
A - Address the patinet/Anaesthesia/Assistance( anaesthetist, colleague,paediatrician)
B- Bladder empty
C- Cervix fully dilated/Contractions
D- Determine position/Think and prepare for shoulder Dystocia
E- Explain to the patient/ Exit plan if it fails, ready for cesarean section/check Equipment
F - Fontanelle ( to check position )
G - Gentle traction
H- Handle elevated for forceps/Halt for vacuum ( no descent with 3 pulls, 3 times pop off )
I - Incision/Episiotomy
J- remove forceps when Jaw visible
Criteria for instrumental delivery- FORCEPS
F-favourable head position(OA/OP)
O-os fully dilated
R-rutpture the membranes
E-fully engaged head
P-adequate maternal pelvis
Antepartum haemorrhage causes
A-Abruption of placenta
P-Placenta praevia(or vasa praevia)
H-Haemorrhage from genital tract(ectropian/polyp/cervical cancer)
factors determining the outcome of labour
P-Power of uterine contractions
P-Passenger(size & position of fetus)
Ectopic pregnancy risk factors-"ECTOPIC"
PID-pelvic inflammatory disease
From:S.Yosuf & M.Choudry.Many more excellent mnemonics in:
Mnemonics for Medical Undergraduates
Oral contraceptive complications: warning signs ACHES:
Eye (blurred vision)
Sharp leg pain
A - appearance (color)
P - pulse (heart rate)
G - grimmace (reflex, irritability)
A - activity (muscle tone)
R - respiratory effort
The five W's--post-operative fever
Water--urinary tract infection
Walking--walking can help reduce deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolus
Postpartum collapse: causes "HEPARINS"
Amniotic fluid embolism
Regional anaethetic complications
Domestic violence screening:"SAFE"
S-Stress and safety
Do you feel safe in your relationship? What happens when you and your partner disagree?
A-Afraid or abused
Have you or your children ever been physically threatened or abused? Have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse?
F-Friend or family awareness
Are your friends or family aware of what is happening? Would they support and help you?
E-Emergency escape plan
Are you in danger now, and would you like to go to a shelter or talk with someone? Do you have a place where you and your children could go in an emergency?
Mechanism of labour
"Don't Forget I Enjoy Really Expensive Equipment":
S-Surgical site (for Cesarean section)
causes of secondary amenorrhoea-"SOAP"
more mnemonics contributed by excellent users:here
Jaundice at 24 hours of age-"RAGS"
some more mnemonics
Chat with V. Ravimohan
Causes of increased alfa fetoprotein:
"Increased Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein"
Miscalculation of gestational age
Spina bifida cystica
Abdominal wall defect
by Rinku Uberoi UNIBE
Female pelvis: shapes
In order from most to least common:
Medical mnemonics for your PDA
Predisposing Conditions for Pulmonary Embolism: "TOM SCHREPFER"
E--estrogen, pregnancy, post-partum
Stastics-Type I & Type II error
Type I-it is a false postive result(trial finds a difference between the a drug & placebo but there is no diffrence )
type I- draw a little curl on the I gives us a P(postive)
Type II-it is a false negative result (trial didn't find any difference between the drug & placebo when infact there was a difference)
type II-if we add a bar diagonally it becomes N(negative)
more mnemonics on
Mnemonics for Paediatrics
Analysing a symptom(example :pain)
S-When did it Start?
W-What makes it Worse?
I-What causes Improvement
P-Is there a Pattern?
E-What is the Evaluation?
Another mnemonic to analyse symptoms
Mnemonics from PasTest(PDF document)
Join my network & leave your comments:
If you have any suggestions pls email me: